You don't pay per-call for T1 lines; you only pay a flat high monthly fee. When leasing a T1 line from either the telephone company or ISP ISPs buy T1 lines in bulk from the phone companies, and resell them at lower prices than the phone companies charge , you can attach your network to one of the company's connectors. In telephone company jargon, we call everything beyond the connector customer premises equipment, or CPE.
Digital Telephony And Network Integration
However, you cannot attach your router to the telephone company connector by simply plugging in a cable. To make sure a network interfaces properly with a telephone line, you have to perform several functions. The CSU. A CSU is the first device the external phone line encounters on the customer premises. In the early s, the telephone company always owned the CSU and leased the device to the customer. But during the course of telecommunications deregulation, you can now buy and install your own CSU.
One of the principal functions of a CSU is to protect the carrier and its customers from any "events" stray voltages, frequencies, etc. A CSU provides termination for the telephone line and performs line conditioning and equalization. It also supports loop back tests for the carrier, which means the CSU can reflect a diagnostic signal back to the telephone company without sending it through any customer premises equipment.
CSUs often have indicator lights or LEDs that identify lost local lines, lost telephone company connections, and loop back operation. When the telephone company provided CSUs, the telephone line itself provided the power to them. Now, they generally need their own power supply, and perhaps a backup power supply at the user site. The DSU. You connect a DSU sometimes referred to as a digital service unit between a CSU and customer equipment, such as routers, multiplexers, and terminal servers. Their main function is to adapt the digital data stream produced by the customer equipment to the signaling standards of the telephone carrier equipment, and vice versa.
The digital signals produced by customer devices with throughput less than 56 kbps are asynchronous, which means each byte is distinguished by start and stop bits, and the time interval between bytes varies. However, most customer devices in the telecommunication system use synchronous signaling, in which senders and receivers coordinate with timing clocks to identify the boundaries between units of data.
In these cases, the DSU may be called upon to parcel out incoming asynchronous data at the stable rate the carrier line expects, and wrap start and stop bits around incoming synchronous data before passing it along to the user network. Switched Unlike ISDN, most carriers already offer this service. It creates a virtual network over existing public phone lines with a 56 kbps data rate. This service is cheap, but slow. It's ideal for intermittent data swapping between wide area networks WANs.
Using a connectionless networking plan, each SMDS packet has its own address and does not require a virtual circuit. Proposed speeds are from 1. Many regional carriers are beginning to offer this service for local traffic. Hide comments. More information about text formats. Text format Comments Plain text. Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
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Skip this list. Ratings and Book Reviews 0 0 star ratings 0 reviews. Early telephone networks were wholly analogue. The analogue telephone signals were transmitted from the telephone and proceeded, unaltered, right through the switching equipment connections to the received end. In the modern Australian PSTN, the switching equipment in the exchange uses digital techniques similar to those employed in typical computers.
The exchange uses wholly digital switching processes. After that time this information will be of historical interest only.
Digital telephony Digital telephony developed alongside computer systems. In a digital telephone, the sounds are first converted by the circuitry into electrical signals, as described above, but additional stages of electronic processing are applied.