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Stansly Editor ,. Steven E. Bemisia tabaci Gennedius has distinguished itself from the more than 1, whitefly species in the world by its adaptability, persistence and potential to damage a wide range of agricultural and horticultural crops in all six of the world s inhabited continents. This book collates multiple aspects of the pest ranging from basic to applied science and molecular to landscape levels of investigation.
Experts in multiple disciplines provide broad, but detailed summaries and discussion of taxonomy, genetics, anatomy, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecology, symbiotic relationships, virus vector associations and various tactics for integrated management of this pest insect. The book is focused primarily on progress during the last years and is directed at workers in the field as well as the informed professional who may not necessarily specialize in whitefly research. Naranjo was a key architect in the development and implementation of a highly successful IPM program for sweetpotato whitefly in Arizona cotton that has been widely adopted in other parts of the world.
He has authored over peer-reviewed papers, book chapters and technical articles, served as Co-Editor-in-Chief of the international journal Crop Protection from , and is currently Subject Editor for Environmental Entomology , overseeing the journal section "Transgenic Plants and Insects". Naranjo holds an adjunct appointment in the Department of Entomology at the University of Arizona.
FAQ Policy. Show all. Phil Stansly Dr. Steven Naranjo Dr. Stansly and Steven S. The effect of insecticide, DAT with insecticide, and the interaction of the two were highly significant for each trial Table 1. The same treatment or DAT combinations produced different percentages of plants with TYLCV symptoms in the three trials, and statistical differences among treatments were not always the same in the three trials.
Bemisia: Bionomics and Management of a Global Pest (eBook)
However, a relatively consistent relationship among treatment, DAT, and virus incidence was apparent across trials Table 2. This indicates that the amount of viral inoculum present in the batches of whitefly adults used to infect plants varied from trial to trial, and presumably from cage to cage within a trial. Possible reasons for this are discussed below. For each trial, means within a column not followed by the same letter are significantly different by the Tukey—Kramer method. Overall, virus incidence was highest in the untreated control and lowest in the flupyradifurone treatment Table 2.
Among the insecticides, virus incidence tended to be higher in the pymetrozine treatment. Percent virus was significantly higher in the untreated control than all other treatments at 3 DAT for each trial and at 7 and 14 DAT in the third trial. Virus incidence in the flupyradifurone treatment was statistically lower than the untreated control and pymetrozine treatment in all trials, and lower than the cyazypyr and sulfoxaflor treatments in all trials with the exception of 14 DAT in the third trial.
Percentage of plants with virus symptoms in the pyrifluquinazon treatment was not statistically different from the cyazypyr and sulfoxaflor treatments in any trial Table 2. Percentage of plants with virus symptoms was higher in the cyazypyr treatment than sulfoxaflor at 14 DAT in trial 3 but not in any other comparison. Percentage of plants with virus symptoms was always lower in the cyazypyr treatment than in the untreated control. The number of plants with virus symptoms was always lower in the pyrifluquinazon and sulfoxaflor treatments than the untreated control with the exception of the 14 DAT comparison in the first trial, when these two treatments were not statistically different from the untreated control.
Percentage virus symptoms in the pymetrozine treatment were not statistically different from the untreated control at 7 DAT in the first trial and at 14 DAT in the first and second trials. Percent virus was statistically higher in the pymetrozine treatment than all other insecticide treatments at 3 and 7 DAT in trial 1 and 7 DAT in trial 3. Percent virus in the flupyradifurone treatment was statistically higher at 14 DAT than 3 and 7 DAT in the first and third trial; however, percent virus at 3 and 7 DAT was zero in this treatment in each experiment.
Percent virus in the cyazypyr, pyrifluquinazone, and sulfoxaflor treatments was higher at 14 DAT than 3 and 7 DAT in trial 1, but not in subsequent trials. In the first trial, percentage virus was statistically lower at 7 DAT than 3 and 14 DAT in the untreated control, but not in other trials. With few exceptions, the percentage of tomato seedlings with TYLCV symptoms was higher in untreated plants than in plants treated with insecticide.
The percentage of plants with TYLCV symptoms in the pymetrozine treatment was not statistically different from the untreated control in three of the nine inoculations.
Bemisia: Bionomics and Management of a Global Pest | Philip A. Stansly | Springer
The fact that the pyrethroid combination was comparable to flupyradifurone, a highly effective neonicotinoid, points to the ongoing usefulness of pyrethroids for managing whiteflies in areas where resistance to pyrethroids has not developed. The range of percentage virus observed in plants receiving the same treatment in the three repetitions of the experiment may be due to variability in the amount of viral inoculum present in the whiteflies introduced into each cage.
However, gender and age affect the ability of whiteflies to transmit TYLCV, and a preponderant number of males or older females could result in reduced transmission of the virus. Czosnek et al. It is also possible that although a large number of putatively viruliferous whiteflies were confined with tomato seedlings in a small cage, these whiteflies may have aggregated on certain seedlings and not fed on other seedlings. The amount of viral inoculum will be variable in both laboratory and field populations of viruliferous B. Despite this variability, consistent patterns were revealed in the percentages of plants expressing symptoms of TYLCV under different insecticide and virus exposure combinations.
The results of this set of trials indicate that each material tested can contribute to the suppression of transmission of TYLCV. However, it is promising that materials with distinct modes of action are effective in suppressing the virus, because growers must employ a variety of toxicological pathways to offset the development of insecticide resistance to any one group.
Evaluations of these and other materials as at-plant and foliar spray programs for managing B. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Insect Sci v.
Bemisia: Bionomics and management of a global pest
J Insect Sci. Published online Jan 1. Smith 1, 3 and M. Giurcanu 2. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar 19; Accepted Sep 7. For commercial re-use, please contact journals. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: begomovirus, Bemisia tabaci , Geminiviridae, tomato yellow leaf curl virus , whitefly insecticidal control. Materials and Methods Three factorial experiments, with insecticide treatments as the first factor and whitefly introductions to the plants at different periods after treatment as the second factor, were carried out using a randomized complete block design with each treatment combination replicated four times.